21% of US residents (60.6 million) speak a language other than English at home, 43.1% in California
Posted on 12-Sep-2013
Topics: Demographic Change  Future of California
From the Census Bureau report:
Of 291.5 million people aged 5 and over, 60.6 million people (21 percent of this population) spoke a language other than English at home.
In 1980, 23.1 million people spoke a language other than English at home, compared with 59.5 million people in 2010 (a 158% increase, during which time the population grew 38 percent).
Even looking over the span of a little more than a decade, changes in language use are evident. Several languages or language groups experienced major growth between 2000 and 2011. South Asian languages in particular experienced high levels of growth. “Other Asian languages,” a group comprised mostly of the South Asian languages, Malayalam, Telugu, and Tamil, grew by 115 percent, and Hindi grew by 105 percent. “Other Indic languages” (languages such as Punjabi, Bengali, and Marathi) grew by 86 percent. The slowest growing South Asian languages were Gujarati (52 percent) and Urdu (42 percent).
“African languages,” which includes languages such as Amharic, Ibo, Yoruba, and Swahili, also experienced significant growth of 111 percent. This indicates that the number of speakers in this language group more than doubled.
Spanish speakers were less likely to speak English “very well” (56 percent) than those who spoke another language (61 percent). However, both groups’ English-speaking ability varied by demographic characteristics. Those who were young and were native born were more likely to speak English “very well.” Of the population 15 to 19 years old, 83 percent of those who spoke Spanish and 81 percent of those who spoke a language other than Spanish spoke English “very well.”
43.8% of California residents speak a language other than English at home.
92.1% of residents in the Laredo Texas metropolitan area speak a language other than English at home.
 "Language Use in the United States: 2011", Camille Ryan, US Census Bureau, Aug 2013